In the post-2015 period, Saudi Arabia has turned to an assertive and interventionist foreign policy in the Levant, South Arabia and Gulf region. In this period, the traditional system based on the balanced distribution of power and prestige within the Saud dynasty weakened and the cohesion between the elites disappeared. Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman’s removal of the powerful members of the Saud dynasty from the upper levels of the administration was the most important reason for the elite fragmentation in the country. As of 2021, the lifting of the Qatari blockade without any positive results, the failure to achieve the expected political gains from the Yemen war and the failure to establish a political order in favor of Saudi Arabia in Lebanon reveal that the assertive foreign policy does not make the expected contribution to the national security and interests of the country. One of the most important reasons for these failures in the foreign policy of the country is the elite fragmentation that has emerged recently.