In Turkey, there have been ongoing discussions on the following issues: The role of religion in social life; the relevance of modernization activities, which the government endeavours to actualize through its institutions, and religion; especially the extent that religious thought and lifestyle is affected from modernization activities as well as the extent that these areas affect modernization activities; or whether there is an interaction between religious thought and modernization; and the historical and sociological background of all the abovementioned. It is possible to say that these secularism-oriented discussions will continue to be on the agenda for a long time in Turkey. The discussions on secularism cover modernization and approaches and debates in the issue on the one hand, while it includes religion and the relevance and position of religion to modernization on the other hand. When the contemporary discussions in Turkey on secularism are considered, it is possible to mention Şerif Mardin and İsmail Kara as outstanding names. There are similarities in the approaches of these two intellectuals in certain issues on the subject as well as conflicts in some issues. In this study, moving from their works and the discussions they have been part of, the approaches of these two intellectuals on the issue is discussed and assessed. Furthermore, since Şerif Mardin has more studies to be examined within the context of our subject, more of his views are included in the study.