Modernization has emerged as a civilizing discourse and as a linear understanding of history with the Enlightenment. In the twentieth century, two major revolutionary movements broke out in Iran, a country with sectarian roots alongside its social and political organizations. The revolutionary movements that took place right at the beginning and at the end of the century were not against Western modernization and revolutions. On the contrary, under the leadership of the religious classes they were directed against the monarchical governments. Paradoxically, both revolutions emerged under religious influences and leadership against dynasties who wanted to modernize the country and to secularize it by destroying the domain of religious authority. The demands of political participation and the institutionalized participation channels developed by the processes of modernization, have mobilized secular power demands. Furthermore, the segments of society exploited by the costs of development projects, have united and overthrown political power. This modern political reaction under religious influence and leadership, shows the specific development indigenous to Iranian society.